Click on image to enlarge
Speaking of fluoride – the cartoon sort of reminds me of Paul Connett’s book – The case against fluoride?
In Anti-fluoride activists unhappy about scientific research I related how local anti-fluoride propagandists were busy rubbishing the Royal Society of NZ fluoride review – even before it was released. Now that it is released (see they have gone into a manic mode – launching press releases and facebook attacks. Given that some of these were launched within hours of the report’s release these propagandists hadn’t bother actually reading the report itself.
These attacks are typical of anti-science people when confronted with scientific information undermining their strong beleifs. As we say in New Zealand, these critics “play the man rather than the ball.” But first, let’s deal with the single criticism of the scientific content of the report – the question of the mechanisms of the beneficial roles of fluoride for teeth.
The anti-fluoride brigade has a thing about this – claiming that the mode of action of fluoride is by topical contact with the teeth – and then usually they try to claim only high concentrations, as in toothpaste, are effective topically. Anything to rule our a role for fluroidated drinking water.
The Royal Society report discusses various studies, saying they:
“suggest that the predominant effect of fluoride is mainly local (interfering with the caries process) rather than systemic (pre-eruptively changing enamel structure), though the latter effect should not be dismissed.”
It then discusses the evidence for a systemic role in the section Contribution of pre-eruptive fluoride exposure to preventive effects.
“Despite a substantial body of evidence suggesting that the predominant effect of fluoride in mitigating the caries process occurs post-eruptively and topically, some recent studies provide additional evidence of a systemic effect of fluoride on pre-erupted teeth. Singh et al. found that fluoride is acquired in enamel during crown completion in the first permanent molars, during the time that the matrix is formed and calcified in the first 26-27 months of life. The same group had previously evaluated the pre- and posteruptive effects of fluoride exposure at the individual level, controlling for multiple fluoride sources and potential confounders, and showed a significant effect of pre-eruptive fluoride exposure on caries in permanent teeth. However, they determined that maximum benefit was gained by having both pre- and post-eruptive fluoride exposure. Other groups have also found that a higher percentage of total lifetime exposure to fluoride was associated with lower caries burden,[81-83] indicating that fluoride is effective throughout the lifespan, including pre-eruptively.”
Being a scientific review, let’s list the citations used in the section quoted. Interested readers can check them out:
79: Singh, K.A., A.J. Spencer, and D.S. Brennan, Effects of water fluoride exposure at crown completion and maturation on caries of permanent first molars. Caries Res, 2007. 41(1): p. 34-42.
80: Singh, K.A., A.J. Spencer, and J.M. Armfield, Relative effects of pre- and posteruption water fluoride on caries experience of permanent first molars. J Public Health Dent, 2003. 63(1): p. 11-9.
81: Slade, G.D., et al., Associations between exposure to fluoridated drinking water and dental caries experience among children in two Australian states. J Public Health Dent, 1995. 55(4): p. 218-228.
82: Slade, G.D., et al., Caries experience among children in fluoridated Townsville and unfluoridated Brisbane. Aust N Z J Public Health, 1996. 20(6): p. 623-9.
83: Spencer, A.J., J.M. Armfield, and G.D. Slade, Exposure to water fluoridation and caries increment. Community Dent Health, 2008. 25(1): p. 12-22.
Hardly suprising to anyone recognising that reality is rarely as simple as they might desire. The benefits of fluoride are confered both by a systemic effect on pre-erupted teeth and by a topical or surface effects on existing teeth.
Yet Fluoride Free NZ claims (see Fluoridation review ‘Dirty Science’)
“One surprise is that the review has gone so far as to claim that fluoridation works systemically (i.e. by swallowing) before teeth erupt.
This belief was not only scientifically discredited 15 years ago by the US Public Health Service’s Centers for Disease Control, but has also been acknowledged as wrong in court in sworn affidavits by Health Ministry representatives and is contrary to what the top consultant to the MoH’s National fluoridation Information Service told the Hamilton City Council last year”
No real citations there to list – just the “authority” of ignorance. The idea that, as Isaac Asimov said, “democracy means that my ignorance is just as good as your knowledge.”
I discussed this attempt by Fluoride Free NZ to distort the evidence and literature in my articles Fluoridation – topical confusion and Topical confusion persists. It seems that Fluoride Free NZ would have been happier if the authors of this review had actually ignored the scientific literature on the topic.
I will leave aside for now the emotive language and personal attacks used by the anti-fluoride propagandists in their attacks on this review. Also, I will ignore their laughable suggestions for the “experts’ they would have liked to see on the review panel and their demand that such review should actually be a public discussion (yet they refuse to allow any open discussion on their own facebook pages!).
Let’s just consider why these people take the effort to submit press statements that few credible news sources would bother picking up. I discussed this in Anti-fluoridationist astro-turfing and media manipulation where I illustrated how planted press releases were picked up by tame “natural” health websites, Paul Connett’s Fluoride Alert website and their own Facebook and twitter social media. this self-promotion get’s requoted by anti-fluoride propagandists around the world – and sometime even makes its way into mainstream media.
Wellington Anti-fluoride dentist, Stan Litras, planted just such a press release. He provided a misleading headline Review ‘confirms fluoridation must end’ which was picked up and circulated by Connett’s Fluoride Alert. It has also been heavily circulated on Twitter and anti-fluoride Facebook pages.
I guess there are now a host of anti-fluoride activists around the world who actually believe the Fluoride Review produced by the Royal Society of New Zealand recommended the end of fluoridation!
Yet, in fact, the review concluded:
“Councils with established CWF [community water fluoridation] schemes in New Zealand can be confident that their continuation does not pose risks to public health, and promotes improved oral health in their communities, reducing health inequalities and saving on lifetime dental care costs for their citizens. Councils where CWF is not currently undertaken can confidently consider this as an appropriate public health measure, particularly those where the prevalence and severity of dental caries is high.”
How do these guys sleep straight in their bed at night?
A press release from the Royal Society of NZ today. I think the “take home message is:
“The panel concluded that the concerns raised by those opposed to fluoridation are not supported by the scientific evidence”
A review of the scientific evidence for and against the efficacy and safety of fluoridation of public water supplies has found that the levels of fluoridation used in New Zealand create no health risks and provide protection against tooth decay. Councils currently implementing this measure can be confident about its public health benefits, while those not currently fluoridating water can consider it a safe and effective option.
The review, entitled Health Effects of Water Fluoridation: a Review of the Scientific Evidence, was commissioned by Sir Peter Gluckman, the New Zealand Prime Minister’s Chief Science Advisor and Sir David Skegg, President of the Royal Society of New Zealand at the request of Auckland City on behalf of several local Councils.
“The process for the review was rigorous,” said Sir David Skegg. “It included an extensive evaluation of the scientific literature by a panel of five experts, as well as one lay observer with local body experience. The resulting report was reviewed by three international experts and by the Director of the National Poisons Centre,” he said.
According to Skegg, the panel paid particularly close attention to the claims that fluoride contributes to the risks of cancer, musculoskeletal and hormonal disorders, as well as to claims that it has adverse effects on brain development – these being the major contentions about potential harms that have been made.
“The panel concluded that the concerns raised by those opposed to fluoridation are not supported by the scientific evidence,” said Skegg.
According to the report, the only side effect of fluoridation at the levels used in New Zealand is mild dental fluorosis, which can cause opaque white areas in the tooth enamel that is usually of no cosmetic significance. This is found to be as common in non-fluoridated areas as it is in fluoridated areas, which is probably a reflection of behaviour such as swallowing of fluoridated toothpaste by young children.
“The review finds compelling evidence that fluoridation of the water at the established and recommended levels produces broad and continuing benefits for the dental health of New Zealanders,” said Sir Peter Gluckman. “The public can be reassured on the basis of robust scientific data, that the implementation of this public health measure poses no risk of adverse health effects,” he said.
“It is worth noting that dental health remains a major issue for much of the New Zealand population, particularly in communities of low socioeconomic status.”
From a scientific perspective, the report finds that community water fluoridation provides a cost-effective and equitable way of improving public health. However, it should be noted that the review does not address the broader philosophical issues that have surrounded fluoridation.
Visit Health Effects of Water Fluoridation for full report, executive summary and a list of contributors.
These activists have a really weird understanding of science and the nature of scientific research. How’s this for press releases from the NZ Fluoride Free Science and Legal Advisor, Mark Atkin:
1: Rubbishing a planned review of the published science around fluoridation by Sir Peter Gluckman (the Prime Minister’s Chief Science advisor) and the NZ Royal society. Mark declares the review is “totally one-sided” and that Gluckman admits this (see Secret Fluoridation Review Totally One-Sided Admits Chair)!
And what is Atkin’s “evidence” for that? Well Gluckman did say:
“this is just straightforward scientists reviewing what’s in the peer reviewed literature about what we know about the safety and efficacy of fluoride in water. It is reviewing the scientific literature.”
And Atkin chose to distort that to mean:
This “‘review’ of water fluoridation will only look at research that supports fluoridationists’ belief in ‘the safety and efficacy of fluoride in water’, says Sir Peter Gluckman, co-chair of this thereby-admitted ‘kangaroo review’.
It is no wonder that scientific studies showing water fluoridation is neither safe nor effective have not been sought for this bogus ‘review’.”
Mark Atkin seems to have a serious comprehension problem.
2: Claiming Waikato University is commissioning research to obtain predetermined conclusions.
The same day Atkin produced another press release (see Predetermined ‘research’ outcome commissioned by Waikato Uni). He certainlychurns out press releases even if their quality leaves a lot to be desired.
The specific project Atkins is upset about plans to look in detail at:
“nearly 1700 publicly accessible submissions to the Hamilton City Council on the initial decision to remove flouride from Hamilton’s city water supply with a view to tracing interests and other links to private interests and public lobbying groups.”
Rather than making assumptions about the outcome, the research is aimed at establishing if there were links and their extent. The title of the project is “Public Integrity and Participatory Democracy: Hamilton
City Council’s Water Fluoridation Decision.” Surely it is in all our interests to determined how effective our participatory democracy works at the local body level.
Given that the anti-fluoridation activists often claim our democratic processes are distorted by groups like the District Health Boards I would have thought they would welcome this research. Mind you, they may prefer to leave that particular claim unchecked by objective analysis and actually be far more scared of what an objective analysis of the process reveals about their own manipulation and links to private commercial interests and lobby groups.
Isn’t that weird. A “science advisor” who interprets a scientific review “about the safety and efficacy of fluoride in water” to mean that “scientific studies showing water fluoridation is neither safe nor effective” will be excluded! And that research aimed at tracing interests and links of submitters to commercial and lobby groups will only produce a results claiming the links exist without considering any evidence.
Perhaps this is the way Mark Atkin thinks scientific investigations should happen. Perhaps this is the way the “world fluoridation experts” he idolizes, like Paul Connett and Declan Waugh, carry out their “investigations.”
But it is certainly not the way genuine scientific investigations are done.
Over recent months I have been following, and learning more about, the issues of fluoridation and the Ukrainian civil war. One is a scientific issue (at least in most of the debate), the other political. Yet in the social media discussions both issues are dominated by motivated reasoning, cherry-picking, confirmation bias and outright prejudice. The same thing is going on in both issues and in many cases show denial, the favouring of belief over facts and evidence.
Donald Prothero points out that this is just human nature. We are not “rational machines,” and, if we are honest, we should all be able to recognises these faults in our own approaches, no matter how sceptical and scientific we think we are.
Prothero presented an interesting talk at the recent Amazing Meeting in Las Vegas, he deals mainly with creationism, climate change denial and anti-vaccination beliefs but the lessons have much wider applicability.
He has some great cartoons in his lecture. But I also liked how he drew lessons from his analysis about how supporters of science and scepticism should deal with discussions when science denial occurs. Simple antagonistic argument and debunking is usually not effective. We need to recognise the beliefs and values underlying the denial and respond to those.
The lecture is based on part of Prothero’s recent book Reality Check: How Science Deniers Threaten Our Future.
I read your article in the Sonoma County Gazette which was republished at Paul Connett’s Fluoride Alert website – Fluoridation convert. A scientist explains what changed her mind. You briefly described scientific studies which you claim convinced you to take a stance against community water fluoridation. Apparently you found these so convincing you are now a board member and steering committee member of several anti-fluoridation organisations.
My purpose here is to discuss the studies you refer to because I think your interpretation of them is mistaken. I offer my critique of your interpretation in the spirit of normal scientific exchange and discussion and hope you will respond in the same way.
You wrote that you were exasperated with the fluoridation debate so:
“I started researching for myself. This was familiar terrain: I had published many papers, so I know what it takes to prove a point scientifically, and the data required to get a paper published. I had performed analyses, plotted data and defended my research and interpretations in public forums.”
Good on you. I believe experience in scientific research, scientific publication and the use of scientific literature helps cultivate a critical and intelligent approach to the literature. I think this is essential if one seriously wishes to make sense of apparently contradictory evidence and overcome one’s own confirmation bias.
“I quickly found World Health Organization data that stunned me:
• Tooth decay has plummeted in developed countries worldwide, regardless of fluoridation.
• Cavity rates are the same—or even lower – in many non-fluoridated countries compared to the U.S.”
Just a minute! Did you look at the WHO data carefully? Did you take into account the well established multiple factors, beside fluoride, influencing dental health? (Things like diet, health services, dental treatments available, other social health services etc.) Did you consider the difficulty of drawing conclusions from data, especially a small amount of data, taken from different cultural, social and political situations? And, importantly, did you check out the WHO data which compared data from fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas in the same country? (Many of the other confounding factors can be eliminated by making comparisons within a country).
The figure on the left below is the one most often used by anti-fluoride activists for obvious reasons – it confirms their bias. But it suffers from all the problems mentioned above (including the fact that the straight lines result from using just 2 data points for each country) and so does not allow a truly objective person to conclude what you have.
Surely with your scientific experience you checked out the detail in the data – such as the WHO data for the Irish Republic which included that for both fluoridated and unflouridated areas? The plot of that data (see figure in the right) suggests your conclusion is unwarranted (the dotted line is the average of fluoridated and unfluoridated and corresponds to the data in the graph on the left.).
My conclusion from the WHO data is that tooth decay has decreased in all these European countries over the last 30 years. Fluoride is just one factor in this but it is wrong to conclude from the WHO data that fluoride is ineffective (see Fluoride Debate).
This concerns you because:
• The one clear correlation with water fluoridation is disfiguring “dental fluorosis” supposedly only a cosmetic problem.
But, Jane, have you looked at the available data on dental fluorosis carefully? Your conclusion is a misinterpretation which anti-fluoride propagandist love to promote because it confirms their bias – “fluoridation causes a “disfiguring” complaint – dental fluorosis.” But “disfiguring” or serious dental fluorosis is not caused by community water fluoridation. It is caused by excessively high fluoride dietary intake due to high natural levels of fluoride, industrial contamination or obsessive consumption of toothpaste. It is also very rare in the US, Europe, Australia and New Zealand.
Dental specialists identify various levels of fluorosis ranging from not present, through questionable, very mild, mild, moderate to severe – see the figures below (taken from Fluorosis Facts: A Guide for Health Professionals):
Some idea of the appearance of dental fluorosis at these various levels in given by the photos below.
I agree that often (not always) the occurrence of total dental fluorosis may be higher for people in fluoridated areas than in non-fluoridated area – but the “disfiguring” moderate and severe forms are not the result of community water fluoridation. The milder forms which may arise from community water fluoridation tend to be either unnoticeable or so mild as to be of only cosmetic significance.
So Jane, I am surprised that with your scientific experience you came to such an unwarranted conclusion. If you had truly looked at the data intelligently and critically surely you would not have drawn the extreme conclusion you did about community water fluoridation and dental fluorosis.
You refer to studies which show only minimal or no difference in oral health between fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas. I have also seen those studies. But you and I are scientists so know we should always look at the details and not rely on the conclusions drawn by political activists who misinterpret these studies. Hell, as scientists we shouldn’t even rely in the conclusions made by the researchers themselves – we should always look at the details.
Tooth decay for children living in fluoridated and unfluoridated areas has been compared in many studies. It is easy to find results confirming ones bias – pro-fluoridation or anti- fluoridation. So as scientists both you and I should consider all the studies – not just those confirming our particular bias. That should be obvious to us.
I have seen plenty of studies showing a positive effect of community water fluoridation on oral health – so how do I deal with those other studies showing no effect? Well, I certainly don’t ignore them but it helps to look at the details. For example, in my article Fluoridation: what about reports it is ineffective? I discussed a 1985 paper by a New Zealand researcher, John Colquhoun, who found no differences in tooth decay between children in fluoridated and unfluoridated areas.
Colquhoun, who was also an antiifluoridation campaigner, chose to conclude that fluoridation had no effect on oral health. But here is the problem – the children in the non-fluoridated areas he studied all received regular topical dental fluoride application treatments, whereas most of the children in the fluoridated areas did not. So the lack of effect was hardly surprising. In scientific terminology his control group was not a proper control.
The studies showing no increase in tooth decay when fluoridation is stopped are continually quoted by anti-fluoridation propagandists – but never the ones that do show such an increase. So your reading of the published studies cannot have been very thorough for you to conclude:
“Tooth decay did not go up when fluoridation was stopped.”
For example, consider just one study in South-west Scotland by Attwood and Blinkhorn (1991) I discussed in article What happens when fluoridation is stopped? The figure below displays some of their data
Decayed missing and filled teeth for 10 year olds. Stranraer fluoridated until 1983. Annan not fluoridated.
This study showed tooth decay increased after fluoridation was stopped in one town (Stranraer) even though there was a general decrease in tooth decay (no doubt resulting from things like improvements in diet, tooth brushing, dental treatments, etc.) indicated by the data from the town that had never been fluoridated (Annan).
Still, what about those studies which showed no increase in tooth decay when fluoridation was stopped? Studies in Cuba, the former East Germany and Finland are frequently quoted by anti-fluoridation activists. I discussed these in my article What happens when fluoridation is stopped?
In all the studies referred to the researchers themselves drew attention to the role of other factors which helped maintain oral health. For example, the introduction of a school mouthrinsing programme, which has involved fortnightly mouthrinses with 0.2% NaF solutions” in La Salud, Cuba. Or “improvements in attitudes towards oral health behaviour and, on the other hand, to the broader availability and application of preventive measures (F-salt, F-toothpastes, fissure sealants etc.)” in the former East Germany.
The authors of the Finnish study even warned against drawing the conclusion you have from these studies:
“The main reason for the modest effect of water fluoridation in Finnish circumstances is probably the widespread use of other measures for caries prevention. The children have been exposed to such intense efforts to increase tooth resistance that the effect of water fluoridation does not show up any more. The results must not be extrapolated to countries with less intensive preventive dental care.”
The whole issue of dental health is clearly complex and many factors influence it. As a scientist used to dealing with complex issues you must surely agree the scientific literature should not be cherry-picked. It must be approached critically and intelligently.
Finally, Jane, we come to the question of the mode of action of fluoride – does it work systemically via ingestion, or topically by a surface reaction on existing teeth? You assert:
In recent years the differentiation between swallowing fluoride and coating teeth with it has become lost in the discussion. But this differentiation is essential. The overwhelming consensus among scientists, including the Centers for Disease Control CDC and the National Research Council, is that fluoride works when it’s applied to the tooth surface, NOT when it’s swallowed.
I know this is the position anti-fluoride propagandists keep promoting but it doesnt actually accord with the evidence. Research shows ingested fluoride plays a beneficial role during tooth development before eruption (see my article Ingested fluoride is beneficial to dental health.
With existing teeth fluoride transferred from water and food during drinking and eating helps maintain a concentration in saliva and tooth biofilms necessary to inhibit tooth decay by a surface reaction. Researchers usually refer to the reaction of fluoride at the tooth surface responsible for inhibiting demineralisation and promoting remineralisation as the “predominate” – not the only – mechanism for the beneficial role of fluoride.
Jane, you should have read the CDC report you refer to more carefully. Far from denying a role for “swallowed” fluoride the CDC report Recommendations for Using Fluoride to Prevent and Control Dental Caries in the United States actually says:
“However, drinking fluoridated water, brushing with fluoride toothpaste, or using other fluoride dental products can raise the concentration of fluoride in saliva present in the mouth 100-to 1,000-fold. The concentration returns to previous levels within 1–2 hours but, during this time, saliva serves as an important source of fluoride for concentration in plaque and for tooth remineralization.”
Unfortunately, opponents of CWF claim this surface mechanism means that ingested fluoride plays no role and fluoride is only effective when topically applied – as with toothpaste. This is a gross simplification and distortion. Ingested fluoride is beneficial to teeth duing their development before eruption. And ingested fluoride contributes to the surface reaction protecting existing teeth.
Fluoridated toothpaste (and dental fluoride applications) also contribute to this surface reaction. But the more frequent “top-up” of saliva fluoride concentrations via drinking fluoridated water also make an important contribution.
Jane, I don’t claim to have provided the final answer to all criticisms of community water fluoridation here. I have simply responded to your assessments and shown why I think them wrong.
I am open to hearing your responses to my critique and welcome any scientific exchange on this important issue with you.
I look forward to hearing from you.
Saw this photo on the Guardian – see Accidental Renaissance: the photos that look like Italian paintings. The author says:
“Currently doing the rounds on Twitter is the image below, taken from Facebook by artist James Harvey, whose tweet has been shared thousands of times. It depicts one of the fairly frequent brawls in Ukrainian parliament which, while undoubtedly ugly to fans of democracy and national stability, is beautiful on a purely aesthetic level.”
I can appreciate the good composition in the photo even without the description of it’s adherence to the Fibonacci spiral. But I am happy with the description if this sort of photo as a happy accident:
“A court photographer obviously didn’t have the kind of time Michelangelo did to compose his image, but its serendipity makes it even more magical. The hands that swarm in at the edges of the photograph give it a weirdly Renaissance quality too: in those paintings, hands do so much of the emotional heavy lifting – they supplicate, pray, and constantly reach for the divine.”
I think that composition comes naturally to an experienced and good photographer. They might not be consciously thinking about Fionacci spirals or the golden ratio but years of practice helps them recognise good composition and the “right moment” to push the shutter.
Let’s give the photographer some credit and attribute the results to intuition based on years of experience rather than a happy accident or serendipity.
Image Credit: Learn Blog Tips
There are now over 300 blogs on the list, although I am weeding out those which are no longer active or have removed public access to sitemeters. (Let me know if I weed out yours by mistake, or get your stats wrong).
Every month I get queries from people wanting their own blog included. I encourage and am happy to respond to queries but have prepared a list of frequently asked questions (FAQs) people can check out. Have a look at NZ Blog Rankings FAQ. This is particularly helpful to those wondering how to set up sitemeters.
Please note, the system is automatic and relies on blogs having sitemeters which allow public access to the stats.
Here are the rankings of New Zealand blogs with publicly available statistics for July 2014. Ranking is by visit numbers. I have listed the blogs in the table below, together with monthly visits and page view numbers.
Meanwhile I am still keen to hear of any other blogs with publicly available sitemeter or visitor stats that I have missed. Contact me if you know of any or wish help adding publicly available stats to your bog.
You can see data for previous months at Blog Ranks
Find out how to get Subscription & email updates
|Visit Rank||Blog||Visits/month||Page Views/month|
|1||Whale oil beef hooked||2067499||3424236|
|3||The Daily Blog||226522||366224|
|7||Throng New Zealand||43672||79016|
|12||No Right Turn||27462||37118|
|16||Music of sound||18992||23883|
|18||The REAL Steve Gray||12151||16927|
|22||Social Media & the 2014 Election||10026||13317|
|24||Keith Johnson Wellington NZ||9725||10103|
|25||Fields of Blood||9614||13736|
|33||Aotearoa: A wider perspective||7736||10104|
|34||Tikorangi The Jury Garden||7433||10289|
|35||Anglican down under||7102||9663|
|36||Autism & Oughtisms||6440||6500|
|37||Home education Foundation||6225||9224|
|41||Cycling in Christchurch||4619||6256|
|43||Teaching the Teacher||4529||6138|
|44||Reading the maps||4422||5844|
|46||Avalon’s Guide: Emigrate to New Zealand||4130||5256|
|48||In the back of the net||3718||5466|
|49||New Zealand Conservative||3422||5113|
|55||Eye on the ICR||2405||3231|
|56||Open Parachute @ SciBlogs||2399||2802|
|58||Rodney’s Aviation Ramblings||2121||2685|
|61||Pdubyah – a life just as ordinary||1955||3249|
|64||The Woolshed Wargamer||1770||3000|
|66||PM of NZ||1451||1733|
|67||Put ‘em all on an island||1410||1795|
|67||Anne Free Spirit||1410||2520|
|70||james lin’s blog||1299||1314|
|75||Life of Andrew||1047||1235|
|76||ICT Teaching and Learning||1039||1229|
|76||Life Behind the IRon Drape||1039||1660|
|78||Code for Life||1021||1139|
|79||Notes from the bartender||984||1108|
|80||Cut your hair||974||986|
|81||A communist at large||960||1274|
|83||From the Earth’s End||896||1180|
|84||misc.ience @ Sciblogs||873||951|
|85||Man of Errors||846||944|
|87||A Bee of a Certain Age||804||869|
|90||OracleNZ by Francisco Munoz Alvarez||759||1022|
|91||Einstein Music Journal#||750||810|
|92||Tales from a Café Chick#||720||1050|
|94||One Furious Llama||704||785|
|95||Media Sport and Other Rantings||700||791|
|98||Capitalism is bad||640||1424|
|99||Life is not a race to be finished first||639||1069|
|100||Goings on at the Madbush Farm||633||770|
|102||Room 5 @ Melville Intermediate School||600||810|
|103||Show your workings||598||785|
|105||White & Black||568||728|
|107||Tararua District Library||565||768|
|108||Get Out Gertrude!||546||676|
|110||Room One @ Auroa School||510||1650|
|113||The IT Countrey Justice||476||635|
|114||The Fundy Post||453||586|
|115||Hitting Metal With A Hammer||447||620|
|117||Skeptiocon @ Sciblogs||426||457|
|118||Four seasons in one||399||430|
|120||Exile in New zealand||396||637|
|122||Software development and stuff||348||373|
|125||The Genetically Insane||341||423|
|126||The Gentically Insane||330||420|
|135||Moving the crowd||284||5168|
|136||goNZo Freakpower Brains Trust||281||312|
|140||Glennis’s Blog Page#||270||330|
|141||The Little Waaagh! That Could||261||313|
|145||Mountains of Our Minds#||240||300|
|147||Rest Area 300m||238||312|
|148||King’s High School Library||236||372|
|152||Something Interesting to read||227||262|
|154||Pointless and adsurb||223||287|
|156||Science in a van||217||288|
|164||Write to travel||183||242|
|168||High voltage learning during the Christchurch earthquakes||179||315|
|171||At home with Rose||144||183|
|173||NZ First Youth||136||176|
|176||Looking in the square||131||143|
|177||Sam Books and Thoughts||129||175|
|178||Korero Pt England||128||216|
|179||The Well read Kitty||125||136|
|180||Nine Inch Nails||120||150|
|182||Journey to a mini me||118||146|
|183||jo russ photo diary||116||139|
|187||Springston School Library Blog||110||146|
|191||Pt England Scribes||100||128|
|193||Canvassing for opinion||97||130|
|196||John Macilree’s Weblog#||90||90|
|198||Making IT Happen||84||112|
|202||Sleeping with books||76||80|
|203||New Zealand Indian Fine Arts Society||68||85|
|206||John Macilree’s Blog||61||66|
|207||Room 24, 2012||60||60|
|207||James McKerrow – Surveyor 1834-1919#||60||60|
|210||Whitireia Journalism School||57||66|
|211||Shelly van Soest Artist||55||87|
|214||Social Policy Bonds Blog||50||62|
|216||Oracle of Okarito||47||55|
|217||The First Fifteen @ TIS||44||103|
|219||University of Otago, Law Library Blog||39||58|
|222||Football Tragic NZ||36||36|
|226||The Official Ebenezer Teichelmann Blog#||30||30|
|227||Save our schools NZ||28||31|
|228||Two Minutes Sport||27||85|
|228||Tangled up in purple||27||41|
|230||The Secret Life of Russ||26||31|
|230||A conservative perspective||26||30|
|233||Green is good||23||27|
|233||Mad Young Thing||23||25|
|235||Moments of Whimsy||21||36|
|236||Anticipating future impacts||20||24|
|240||New Zealand female Firefighter calendar||17||17|
|244||ah! New Year’s Resolution||13||13|
|247||In this moment||10||12|
|250||Blair for Mayor||9||9|
|250||global village governance||9||13|
|255||A developing Geneticist||7||8|
|259||Works in progress||6||6|
|259||West City Darts||6||136|
|262||DMP Lead Free||5||5|
|262||Bob McKerrow – Wayfarer||5||6|
|265||Roger Nome’s progressive Politics||4||4|
|269||Here I stand||3||4|
|269||Mars 2 Earth||3||3|
|272||Scott & Sarah Kennedy||2||2|
|272||Born on State Highway 1||2||2|
|272||Yea or Nay||2||2|
|276||Love your work||1||3|
|276||Today is my birthday||1||1|
|276||The Meaning of Trees||1||1|