Alison Campbell

Senior University of Waikato biological sciences lecturer Dr Alison Campbell is well known in the Waikato and Bay of Plenty for promoting science to community groups and school students. She has been nicknamed the skull lady by secondary school students after her presentations on human evolution. Dr Campbell established Cafe Scientifique in Hamilton as part of an effort to encourage the community to discuss scientific issues. She has also launched BioBlog website to support secondary school biology students and teachers preparing for exams. That blog is syndicated right here on Sciblogs. Alison is on Twitter @AcampbelTeacher

Measles: NOT a “benign childhood disease” - BioBlog

Sep 02, 2019

Pretty much everyone in NZ should be aware by now that the country is facing its biggest measles outbreak in years, with Counties Manukau being particularly hard-hit. Here’s the data for the week ending August 23rd, from ESR’s Public Health Surveillance page: This hasn’t stopped those opposed to vaccination plague enthusiasts pushing all their usual tropes, as you can see from pretty much every measles-focused post on social media (try this one for size). These include things like “well, I had measles & it wasn’t so bad”¹, along with “I don’t know anyone who’s died from measles” and “measles is a benign childhood disease”. This makes me think that we need to see a lot more articles like this one: Kiwi mother shares ordeal after 7-month-old catches measles. (There are quite a few from overseas; see … Read More

Telling good science from bad (a cautionary tale) - BioBlog

Aug 01, 2019

Recently I came across the claim that cystic fibrosis (CF) can be cured by diet. This was news to me, given that the mutation that causes CF is well-documented, as are the necessary treatments, and I wasn’t aware of any evidence that diet alone would correct the faulty membrane pump involved. So I said so. In response I was told to look into “mineral replacement” and view a Youtube video. A video made by Dr Joel Wallach, apparently “nominated for a Nobel prize in medicine”, or so my informant told me. Well, that’s the logical fallacy known as an “appeal to authority” right there. That is, I was told that Dr Wallach’s claims must have something in them, not because of published evidence in support of them, but because of a supposed Nobel nomination. It’s also … Read More

A new study on the heritability of autism spectrum disorder - Unsorted

Jul 25, 2019

Science has known for a while now that there is a strong genetic component in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), although those opposed to vaccination tend to deny this. (David Gorski points this out in his commentary on this new 2019 paper.) In this paper, Bai et al. cite data from a meta-analysis of twin studies that estimated the heritability of ASD to be between 64 & 91%. and a set of three Swedish studies with a range of 66 – 83%. These values suggest that much to most of the variability in ASD between populations is the result of genetic differences. Bail and his colleagues also note that it’s also possible for ‘maternal effects’ (especially maternal phenotype) and shared environmental effects to make some contribution, and so their just-published study was designed to allow them to “estimate the heritability** … Read More

Plague enthusiasts: do they assume no-one checks? - BioBlog

Jul 19, 2019

One of the things that strikes me about the commenters actively opposing vaccinations – e.g. on the many news stories about NZ’s measles outbreak – is their continued readiness to state and repeat mistruths and inaccuracies. You see it all the time, and I have to wonder – is there just this underlying assumption that no-one will actually check? Yes, I’d say that assumption definitely exists – it was easy to find evidence that the claim that some states have removed medical exemptions is incorrect, but how many would actually fact-check it? And combine that with the fact that it’s actually really hard to keep up with the sheer number of claims like this: they crop up virtually unchanged on just about every measles-related media post I’ve seen. In this, infectious-disease proponents are working from the same play-book … Read More

“I’ve done my research!” - BioBlog

Jul 08, 2019

New Zealand’s measles outbreak keeps on ticking along. So do the media stories about it. (The FB posts associated with each article aren’t moderated and I suspect this is partly because they generate so many clicks.) A couple of days ago, TVNZ’s Breakfast show carried an interview with a doctor, on the importance of Gardasil, a vaccine that offers protection against several strains of HPV (Human Papilloma Virus). This virus is causally implicated in the development of cervical cancer, genital warts, penile & anal cancer, and some cancers of the mouth and throat. So anything that can reduce rates of infection with the virus will have an impact on the rates of these cancers further down the track. The news story came on the heels of a new paper (summarised here): a meta-analysis of research on Gardasil’s … Read More

What happened to the Neanderthals? - BioBlog

Jun 12, 2019

One of the questions students often ask, when we’re discussing human evolution, is “what happened to the Neanderthals?” After all, this was a large-brained species closely related to our own, with some fairly complex tool technologies and the ability to survive (and thrive) in harsh environmental conditions. Yet they appear to have been replaced by anatomically-modern humans (in Europe, anyway) by around 35-40,000 years ago – and with at least some level of coexistence, given the presence of Neanderthal DNA in modern non-African human populations. So why did the Neanderthals disappear? In mulling this over, students have come up with quite a few possible answers: maybe Neanderthals just didn’t breed as fast as sapiens, so that their populations grew much more slowly; maybe they were out-competed by a species that was a better hunter; maybe they suffered from inbreeding depression; … Read More

Measles infection and immune amnesia - BioBlog

Jun 04, 2019

Measles infection has a couple of longer-term sequelae. One, SSPE, is thankfully rare (although for infants with measles the odds of subsequently developing SSPE are considerably higher than for other age groups). The other, “immune amnesia”, is strongly associated with having had measles, though this doesn’t stop those opposed to vaccination claiming otherwise. In 2015, Mina et al. published a paper in Science that examined the population-level impact of measles infection on overall child mortality from infectious diseases. Infectious disease specialists already knew that [i]mmunosuppression after measles … predispose[s] people to opportunistic infections for a period of several weeks to months, which means that, on a population level, vaccination against measles results in a drop in rates of illness and death due to a range of other  infectious diseases. This suggests that a measles infection somehow suppresses an individual’s immune … Read More

Spiders’ prey and pitcher plants - BioBlog

May 16, 2019

I’ve learned quite a bit about spiders over the years. (And I have never been able to understand the “burn it with fire!” some folks take towards these 8-legged creatures.) For example, it turns out that some spiders actively hunt fish, while others are vegetarian! Then, late last year, I came across a couple of articles on an apparent mutualism between spiders and pitcher plants, published in Oecologica and in the Journal of Animal Ecology respectively. It’s not the only mutualistic relationship that pitcher plants are part of: for example, some act as toilets for tree shrews, and gain significant benefits in the process. (My blog buddy Grant also discussed this story.) Crab spiders are cute little creatures. The family they belong to has around 2100 species worldwide, with 11 or so found here … Read More

The package insert: misunderstood and misrepresented - BioBlog

May 09, 2019

UNICEF estimates that in the period 2010-2017, 169 million children missed their first dose of the measles vaccine – that’s around 21 million children each year. Sadly, this has simply set the conditions for the measles outbreaks we’re seeing around the world, in high- and low-income countries alike. In the first three months of 2019, more than 110,000 measles cases were reported worldwide – up nearly 300 per cent from the same period last year. An estimated 110,000 people, most of them children, died from measles in 2017, a 22 per cent increase from the year before. The US leads the list of high-income countries with a sizeable pool of kids who didn’t receive that first dose of measles vaccine: 2,593,000 children between 2010 & 2017. There, as elsewhere, the UN’s World Health Organisation has identified ‘vaccine hesitancy’ … Read More

Measles infection is not a cure for cancer - BioBlog

Apr 30, 2019

We’re continuing to hear of new measles cases in New Zealand, most recently in this Stuff story about 4 new cases in Auckland (with the possibility that up to 1600 people may have been exposed). One of those ill with the disease is a 10-month-old child, too young to have received her first dose of the MMR vaccine. Completely predictably, the usual anti-vax enthusiasts are there, claiming (as usual) that measles is a benign childhood disease (it’s not); that measles infection strengthens your immune system (the reverse is true: it causes a sort of ‘immune amnesia’ for the next 2-3 years, carrying with it an increased risk of illness and death from other diseases); and that more people are seriously harmed from vaccination than by the disease (without actually providing any evidence in support). Oh yes, and … Read More